covid-19 measures for Madeira

Published 35 Comments on covid-19 measures for Madeira
new covid-19 measures in Madeira

extra temporary rules

for the rest of Januari, 2021. Update of January 12, 2021.

The number of covid cases in Madeira has risen by more than 1100 in the last month. That is far too many. Therefore, the curfew that was announced earlier has now been extended. From 12 January onwards, the curfew will also apply on weekdays. These are the rules: on Mondays to Fridays, curfew is from 7 PM to 5 AM. Saturday and Sunday, the curfew starts at 6pm. Bars, restaurants and all shops, including large shopping malls, except pharmacies and petrol stations, close at 5pm. At the petrol stations, you can only do what the name suggests: fuel up. No sale of sweets, coffee or soft drinks. Restaurant kitchens are allowed to stay open until 10 PM, and only restaurant staff may be on the road delivering meals during curfew hours. So either order a take-out in time, or get your frozen pizza (yuck) in advance; or do as I do and enjoy (sorry for the schadenfreude) a delicious meal from your own kitchen (well, Noud’s kitchen then).

home coked meals. Not just for us, but also for our Bed and Breakfast guests if they wish.

Now, back to serious matters.

Read the rest of this article well to avoid unpleasant surprises.

This article below was last updated on January 3rd, 2021. Today, now rules have been added to the ones that were put into place for Christmas (click to read the article about that). Now the rules that have been added is an early closure of bars and restaurants at 10.30 PM and a curfew from 11 PM till 5 AM. As usual, the announcement was of appaling journalism. No mention was made of the date these new measures start to be valid. Update: these extra measures are valid from January 5, 2021. Some clever clog has even had the intelligent idea to switch off the Christmas lights when the curfew starts.

earlier measures

The other covid-19 measures mentioned in this article were put in place for August and September initially, they have not been cancelled and they remain in place. Having said that, the most important thing you should do is to use your common sense. If you are walking in an empty street without a mask no-one will take offence. But if you are in a busy street, do wear your mask. The rules for mask inside public spaces remain unaltered. Children of 6 and older als now also obliged to wear a mask.

renewed state of emergency

As mainland Portugal struggles with the increasing number of transmissions of covid-19, the government decided to bring back the State of Emergency. It is a ‘light’ state of emergency that did not entail many strict measures. The main reason to go back to the State of Emergency is to give a legal ground to introduce local or regional measures where and when needed, without having to adopt new laws first. The regional government has now set up a new set of rules for the first weeks of December, that will doubtlessly be extended till mid-January. I have explained this extra set of rules in a separate article, as there are many things that remain unclear and the legal merit of some of them is questionable, to say the least. When the dust has settled and things become clear, I will work the extra rules into this article as well. For now, you’d best read the mentioned article about the Christmas covid rules.

The state of emergency is now expected to remain in place up to the bitter end of the pandemic. It applies to the entire Portuguese territory, including the autonomous regions. It is interesting to see that this state of emergency has been created to give regional and local authorities a legal possibility to put their own rules into place. For instance, it is possible that any council or regional government can limit the opening hours of bars and restaurants, choosing any closing hour between 8 PM and midnight they see fit. Also, the state of emergency has given a legal base for the obligation to wear masks, which, up to now, could not legally be enforced.

extra rules as of November 2020

From November 6th, there are new extra rules in place, which have been worked into this article. But in general, the maximum group size in public areas (anywhere outside, in fact) is limited to 10 persons. In restaurants and bars, the maximum number of people seated at the same table is limited to 5, unless they are all members of the same household. In bars and restaurants within a distance of 300 metres from schools, the number is even limited to 4. The rules for wearing face masks remain in place, with the difference that also children from 6 years need to wear them. If you like, you can jump to the mask rules here.

initially for August and September, now prolonged indefinitely

For the months of August and September, new covid-19 measures for Madeira have been announced by the Regional Government. It all has to do with wearing face masks. All started yesterday (somewhere in July) in the leading newspaper Diario de Notícias da Madeira. They announced that in August and September the use of a face mask in all public spaces of the island will be mandatory. The same rules would apply to the sister island of Porto Santo. They also introduced a new rule for people travelling to Madeira: everyone is offered a free covid-19 test upon arrival at the airport. That isn’t new. What is, is that you can refuse it, but if you do, you are put into quarantine for two weeks, in a hotel facility at your own expense. Makes sense to me. But back to the compulsory face masks.

The new covid-19 measures were first announced by tthe Diário de Notícias yesterday

moaning immigrants

Obviously, immediately after this news became public, Facebook exploded. Many people and notably foreign immigrants (yes, I know, they want to call themselves ex-pats but they are ordinary immigrants) started screaming murder about the loss of income from tourism this would bring. I even read somewhere that this would kill the island and whatnot. If you ask yourselves why I did not write a post about this, here is the reason. As always, it takes a little more time to gather all relevant information, and I want to avoid scaremongering at all cost. Also, fake news and sensationalism have no place on any website of mine.

shocked by the new covid-19 measures

So what does the new mandatory face mask rule entail in reality? It is quite simple and it makes sense. Very much so even. We have witnessed the events during the Rali da Calheta. It is a local car rally in the Council of Calheta. During the event, the public flocked together as if there is no covid-19 in the world. This shocked the health authorities, who immediately reminded the public to use masks and keep a distance of 2 metres. Obviously, it also gave them food for thought. This resulted in new covid-19 measures for the months of August and September – now prolonged indefinitely.

the Ralley of Calheta brought too many people too close together!
the public is not wearing facemasks and are too close together for comfort in covid times

why August and September?

August and September will see more tourists come to the island. Also, in August, we will see the famous Rali da Madeira, a classic car rally and the Madeira Wine Festival. And in September the island will celebrate the Festival da Flor, the flower festival. It was planned for May but had to be postponed for obvious reasons. Already, the Cortejo, the parade of the Flower Festival, has been cancelled completely, as it would bring too many people together at one time. All of these festivities are extremely important for the island and the island economy. Therefore, everyone will understand we don’t want to see them cancelled. In practice, until early November, air traffic picked up considerably, increasing the number of imported positive covid cases and even starting some strings of local transmission. That’s why all measures remain in place indefinitely.

If the situation runs out of hand as it did in Calheta, extra covid-19 measures are needed to prevent an outbreak. On October 29, a law was passed in the Autonomous Region of Madeira – which covers Madeira and Porto Santo and any outlying islands like the Desertas and the Selvagens – giving a legal basis for the obligation to wear a mask. Fines can be given and may amount to as much as € 500.

If you have seen the video, you can understand why measures are needed. The crowd attracted by the Flower Festival is too large for comfort in these days of pandemic.

extra measures in place for November and early December

Restaurants and bars have earlier closing hours. Bars close at midnight, reataurants at 11 PM. After those hours, the establishments have to be empty. Nightclubs are completely closed for the time being. Alcohol can not be consumed in public spaces (we assume this means outside bars and restaurants). Maximum group size in the streets is limited to 5 persons, more is permitted if they are all from the same household. Capacity of boats and buses is reduced. If you want a haircut, an appointment is mandatory. We will see how this works out in practice, and update thiw article accordingly.

draconic measure?

When first the authorities announced a general compulsory use of face masks I have wondered what such a seemingly draconic measure could entail exactly. Unfortunately, we missed the Press Conference on RTP-Madeira. Anyway, it would not have been easy to understand everything word for word when journalists all want to ask questions at once. Therefore, I decided to not join the general moaning but to sit down and wait for the fog to lift, which it usually does the next day. And so it did. I am very grateful to Miguel Laginha who has a Facebook page in Portuguese and English called This is Madeira Island and a website, which, next to news articles, promotes touristic activities, flights and holiday rentals under the same name. This morning, I found his article explaining the exact meaning of the new measures. And finally, it all came into perspective and proportion.

where do we wear them?

So where do we have to wear a mask?

indoors

in all indoor public spaces, also in restaurants and bars. But as soon as you sit down at your own table, you can take your mask off as easing and drinking wearing a mask would be too messy. When you get up to go to the bar or use the toilet: wear your mask again. Nothing too complicated to remember.

terraces

in all public outside spaces. So yes, that means the bar’s terrace as well. And the same rules apply that are in place for indoor spaces. So sit down at a table and take your mask off, start moving around and wear it.

streets

A street is also a public place. And yes, the street is where you have to wear your mask as well. But there is also common sense. In summer, the streets in towns and many villages tend to get quite busy. Often, a 2-metres-distance is simply not feasible. That’s when you wear your mask. When you are doing a walk in Madeira’s lush nature it is considered personal physical exercise, and then you are exempt from wearing a mask. Unless, of course, you walk in a large group when a mask is again compulsory. Common sense, again.

err on the safe side

Do not do your running routine on a busy boulevard where crowds are strolling. Even if you are exempt from wearing a mask, you run a much greater risk, as do the strollers with you panting and puffing without a mask. Common sense. I can’t say it often enough. Having said that, a friend told me she was told that she had to put on her mask when waiting – alone – at a bus stop. A policeman stopped and told her ‘she was illegal’ for not wearing her mask. I checked (November 10 we were stopped at a traffic check in the Calheta area) with a policeman. The first thing he said was ‘use your common sense’, even with the renewed state of emergency in place. When I told him the story, he hesitated and said ‘I should probably not say this, but of course it depends on the police officer in question – and maybe on hiss temper that day. I would not tell anyone off for not wearing a mask waiting alone at a bus stop.’ So, in brief, common sense, yes, but be aware of the official rules in place, the ones that say you have to wear a mask in the streets, and if you err, better err on the safe side. Remember these rules have not been in place to hurt or annoy us – like many seem to think – but to keep us safe.

on the beach

On the beach? No, the beach is exempt, but you have to maintain your distance of at least 2 metres. The beach crews have already prepared the beaches for this. And yes, again, use your common sense. When you start walking on a crowded beach to get some drinks, wear your mask to protect yourself and others. You have to wear it anyway when you order at the bar. At the risk of repeating myself: use your f*cking common sense.

Like the photo shows, the beaches are perfectly prepared for visitors, respecting the need of social distancing. Still, like bars and restaurants and their outside spaces, there is no sense of forbidding emptyness. Everyting looks inviting and pleasant like it always does. Bravo for the creativity of many managers and owners.

turn it around

We can also turn the whole thing around. In principle, you wear your mask everywhere, but not when you are out in the nature, on the beach, jogging/running/sporting or in your car when it’s just you and your own people. This is putting it very roughly, so do read the rules about bars and restaurants and their terraces. It is not complicated and really not a problem. Unless you decide it is a problem. In that case, do us all a favour and stay at home. After all the noise of the last couple of days, the island government has issued some pictograms where you can understand the rules in just one look. Of course, they forgot the international versions, so I added a caption to make everything crystal clear.

Are you in the nature? No mask needed, but keep your 2 metres distance
On the beach or the bathing facilities ? no mask needed, but again, 2 metres distance required.
Doing excercise or sports? No mask needed. 2 metres distance is required.
In the car? no mask needed, unless there are strangers with you.

much ado about nothing much

Conclusion: yesterday’s ‘expats-group-moan’ was what I already suspected: much ado about not very much. Use your common sense (I know I already said that), wear a mask in crowded spaces, indoors and outdoors, and respect the social distance of two metres minimum. We are enjoying a fantastic summer here on this island paradise, and we found the anti-covid measures very effective and not too intruding in our life. We would very much like to keep the island safe and healthy and large crowds do not combine with that without sensible covid-19 measures. So be a good lad (or girl) and wear your mask. Use your common sense and respect the health of others, even if you don’t care about your own.

We have witnessed this Island Government take quick and drastic measures if they feel the need arises. It’s all in your – and our – hands. Ignore the rules where you shouldn’t, and a new outbreak is there before you know it. Always remember you are doing this for your own protection, and for the protection of others against a very nasty and stubborn virus. It has already disrupted the lives of many. Use your common sense and do not add yours to those lives.

Enjoy your stay in paradise anyway.

ps

Yes, there is a postscript. New information appears by the hour. There already were discussions about these new covid-19 measures being unconstitutional. Now, it came to my knowledge that the Portuguese national government has said that fining people for not wearing a mask has no legal fundament and is therefore illegal. On top of that, the former president of the Autonomous Region of Madeira Alberto João Jardim, who still has a lot of influence on the island, has said that the Regional government runs the risk of criminal prosecution for enforcing the use of masks. It may turn out that your common sense will be the most important and the most powerful of all covid-19 measures.

Still, the measures taken, draconic or not, have had their effect. Life today is a far cry from the early days of the pandemic when it seemed we were living in a world that isn’t ours. Those days are behind us now. The necessary do’s and don’ts that have found their way into our lives under corona have fallen into place. They no longer determine our lives completely or take away the joy we have. We’ll get there.

post-post-scriptum

When first the measures were announced, they were presented as measures presenting compulsory rules. Sneakily, the government did not clearly mention that the rules were only strong advice. But they were, as there was no legal ground to fine people who did not comply. Though virtually everyone did comply, without moaning, a legal basis was needed to enforce the rules. Late October (yes, this is an update) the law that legalises the obligation to wear your mask when necessary. Fines can be as high as €500, just so you know.

your turn

Any thoughts or questions on this subject? Jump to the comments text field and tell us what you think. Please do not ask your questions by mailing me, as I will end up answering the same questions over and over again. Unless, of course it’s too personal for the public eye.

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By Peter Groen

Peter was born in Amsterdam in 1949. He has a history in PR and copywriting. Now, part time resident of the Island of Madeira of over 10 years, he writes about Madeira, its culture, its overwhelming nature, its food and drink, and about everything concerning travel to and on this beautiful island.

35 comments

  1. Hi everyone,

    I was wondering how serious the Corona situation really is in Madeira. When calculating the 7-day case rate per 100.000 population it would be at around 230, i.e. rather high. Germany (where I am from) has now just issued a travel alert, there the threshold to do so is with a rate of only 50 – where they say with 50 or below health authorities can still control the pandemic.

    Is there any interpretation to the official numbers? I was looking into the article of Diário de Notícias but there is little background.

    For example, if most of the cases are found within a few clusters (e.g. families) then I guess these numbers would be less critical. If, however, the virus is spreading without being able to trace back the infection chains then there would be quite a risk.

    Any views on this?

    Thanks in advance!

    1. Hi Eernesto, I had to give this some thought. I think it would not be realistic to say the covid cases are limited to some family clusters. We have seen transmissions at schools and in families, and also in homes for the elderly. Onb the other hand, the situation is still not considered ‘out of hand’ as we do not have group transmissions yet. The regional government has taken some extra measures as I described in the latest opdate at the top of the article. Yet, if you respect the rules you are not at great risk, I should think. And on top of respecting the rules, I would avoid concentrations of people, whenever possible. We live in the West of the island, in the council of Calheta, where the number of cases is still very low and we feel quite safe. We can still go out for dinner if we want, we do go out to have a poncha or a glass of wine and we can do our shopping whenever we want. Of course, the bar life here is above all outside, so the risk of virus transmission is low. I hope this gives you an idea. If you can, stay somewhere rural and avoid Funchal, Câmara de Lobos and Caniço if you can, just to make sure. This is the most densely populated area, and the number of cases is disproportionally high there. The best asset of Madeira, its overwhelming nature, is still fully at your disposal. As the number of tourists is low, you really can enjoy all the famous walks but without the usual masses. I hope this helps you forming your own idea.

  2. Hello Harold,
    To reply to your question, how do we know where my wife picked up the covid19, the answer, a little long, is as follows.
    I had to go to New Delhi, India on Business. My wife and I spent 10 days in North India. At the time there was only one known case in India and that was in Kerala in the south. Our flight back to Europe via London was cancelled by BA. I flew on Air India to Copenhagen and then on to Zurich for Medical treatment in Switzerland. My wife had to go Delhi, Madrid, Lisbon, Funchal. The Air India flight into Madrid was 3 hours late so she missed the connection to Lisbon and had to overnight in Madrid. Next day on the flight the man next to her was perspiring, shivering and coughing and sneezing all over. My wife started with symptoms 3 days later. Cough, fatigue, shortness of breath but no fever. We spoke to each other every day on the phone. At the time (early February) everyone thought that the key symptom was fever. She had no fever. 2 weeks later I joined her in Madeira. She was then OK apart from the cough and fatigue. The fatigue has continued. Tests in Sweden and Switzerland prove that she had covid19 and has lung damage. It is quite certain in our minds that she could only have caught the virus from the ill passenger sitting next to her. She is slowly recovering but it is taking a long time. She was healthy with no underlying health problems. Fortunately she effectively self isolated as she was too tired to go out and spent most of 10 days in bed.
    Sorry for the long explanation, but hope this helps.
    Richard.

    1. Thank you Richard for the detailed info. I do not doubt that the man next to her was the probable cause, but he might just have had a very bad cold. Anyhow, the main thing is that your wife is recovering and will be better soon. And luckily you didn’t catch the virus.

  3. Hello Peter,
    I very much like your use of the phrase “Common Sense”. Very appropriate but not enough people seem to have it.
    My wife caught Covid 19 on February 12 2020 on a flight from Madrid to Lisbon from the man sitting next to her. It is (or certainly was) possible to catch the virus on a plane. I work in the aerospace industry. The industry group in the USA is A4A. They have a lot of info on safety in flights. It all depends on how much the airline is willing to spend on air filters. The very best are good – but they cost. Not all airlines use these filters. Less good ones do not filter our virus particles which as we all know are very very small. and a considerable amount of air in the cabin is recycled air. So you are just breathing in your fellow passenger’s air, which may include germs. Of course wearing a mask at all times helps.
    I think that the final solution will be that no-one be allowed on the plane until:
    a)they have proof of a negative test within 72 hours of boarding.
    b) a vaccination certificate.
    A) should be in force now and B) later on this year.
    Preferably these conditions should be for all passengers before they are even allowed in the airport.
    If you have ever been to India, this is the existing principle, already there, to combat terrorism. No-one is allowed in the airport without proof, to the army guards outside, that you have reason to enter.

    1. I hope your wife has recovered from COVID. Thank you very much for this information on the filters in the aerospace industry.
      This also seems to be true for offices.
      I can agree with the conditions you list. Warm regards Berendina

    2. Hello Richard,

      I echo Berendina’s comments, and also wish to thank you for posting this excellent information and insight.

      All the best to you

      Steve

    3. Thank you very much, Richard, for your valuable contribution. Hopefully, your wife has recovered since and does not have a trauma causing her to be afraid of flying now. I agree on everything you state, but having said that, many countries – like my own, the Netherlands – do not cooperate at all where the necessary paper or electronic proof of test of vaccination is concerned. If you get tested by the state-run health service GGD they simply refuse to give you proof, stating that the test is not meant for travel. So you have to find a private service of which you can only hope they have the right PCR test accepted by authorities of the country you need to travel to. As for vaccination, it is too early days to see if they would give you a proof of that. Hypocritically, the Dutch authorities now demand proof of a negative test for anyone, including Dutch nationals, that cannot be older than 48 hours. That effectively makes any legal travel to the Netherlands impossible, as you simply cannot get the timing right. All these rules would be fine, very useful even, if the complete EU would apply the same rules and offer the same facilities, which they unfortunately don’t.
      As for the ‘common sense’ thing, at the time I wrote that I had no idea of how few people turned out to have any sense, let alone common sense.

    4. I have a question: How sure are you that your wife caught the virus from her fellow passenger? Usually there are no symptoms during the first 4 or 5 days. – I hope your wife has overcome this illness.

  4. We went to the Toronto airport last night January 3 to board our flight with Azores Airlines, but were refused boarding. Noone had informed us that Canadians could only enter Madeira if their travel was “essential.” We are very disappointed as we had planned to stay in Madeira for a few months and had booked accommodation, as well as paying for Covid tests, suspending our home phone, informing friends, etc. Being elderly, we had thought it prudent to escape the icy streets of Toronto where one risks falling and find a place where we could walk outside but observe all the Covid rules as carefully as we do here in Toronto. Hopefully, Madeira’s rules for blocking foreign travellers will protect your own population. We do understand how important that is and for that reason are happily accepting the disappointing situation. However, I do think Azores Airlines in Toronto might have warned us before we set out for the airport. After all, they only have one flight a week and last night that flight only had 20 passengers.

    1. Very sorry about this, Catherine. However, it is not a Madeira thing, if it was I would have known. But since the English-South African mutation has surfaced, a lot of panicky measures have been taken. I suspect – but I could not get this confirmed yet – that it is an EU thing banning all but essential travel from non-EU countries. Does not make it any better for you to know why, though. I totally agree with you that SATA should have warned you, as they were happy to accept your money for a ticket. I hope that you get a refund, at the very least. Stay safe. And thank you for sharing this, it may serve as a warning for others.

  5. Peter,
    Thanks for the November update. As you say, much of the measures are common sense, but unfortunately nowadays:
    (1) many people nowadays have an inflated sense of entitlement regardless of the impact it might have on others, and
    (2) common sense isn’t actually that common.

  6. Hi Peter and also Maurice,
    I wouldn’t put too much into the aircraft airflow story. Flying from Durban to Dubai I “climbed” across my neighbour. Next thing, I see the carpet in front of my nose. Stewardesses lifted me onto my neighbour’s seat (that was the only pleasant phase of the incident) and gave me oxygen. My total “downtime” was just about one or two minutes. A short while later another passenger collapsed in his seat. This time it took about 20 minutes to normalize him. – A stewardess told me that these incidents happen pretty regularly and she had this experience personally already a few times.

  7. Peter, I came across this interesting article and thought your readers might find it reassuring.

    Many people are worried about the risk of Covid spreading between passengers during a flight. I have seen comments from people who have cancelled holidays as they were not prepared to risk it.
    Research carried out in the USA has shown that the risk is incredibly low and that people should not worry.

    https://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/travel_news/article-8844245/Covid-study-Risk-coronavirus-exposure-commercial-United-aircraft-virtually-non-existent.html

    1. Thanks for this, Maurice. For unknown reasons, your contribution landed in the trash folder. It happens randomly every now and then, no clue why and WordPress does not have an answer. I happened across it just now, so I put it where it belongs. As links are always used in spam messages, contributions with a link always should land in my folder of comments to be moderated, so don’t be surprised that comments like that are not automatically published immediately. However, if that happens I receive a notification and I’ll let it go through at once. Not this time, strangely.

  8. Hi Peter,

    Absolutely love your final line in the PS:

    “It may turn out that your common sense will be the most important and the most powerful of all covid-19 measures.”

    Please may I steal this and use it elsewhere? I think it has a wide applicability in many places and circumstances. (I always quote good sources.)

    Thank you

    Steve

    1. Yes of course you may, Steve. Anything that helps to helo the nasty virus being kept at bay. I would call that borrowing, not stealing

  9. Leerzame blog Peter, mondkapjes doen wij niet maar Amsterdam en Rotterdam willen dat wel zelf gaan doen. Ze zijn samen ook goed voor 50% van de dagelijkse besmettingen. We genieten weer van goed weer en hebben net Renske 3 dagen op bezoek gehad. Overigens vind ik dat wellicht de grootste waarde van de mondkapjes, dat men (vooral de jeugd) er daardoor aan herinnerd wordt dat het Coronatijd is. Geniet van de zomer en hartelijke groet uit Alkmaar.

    1. Wij vinden het niet zo vreemd dat in Nederland die aantallen besmettingen maar niet willen dalen. Nederland lijkt het goed te doen met gezond verstand, maar veel zaken zijn halfbakken en laten veel te veel ruimte voor discussie. Mondkapjes houden gewoon een deel van de nies-en-hoestdruppels tegen. Niet alles misschien, maar alles helpt. In Nederland hebben ze daar totaal irrilevante ideeën over. Maar als je zegt dat het (ook) helpt om de mensen bewuist te houden, dan heb je zeker gelijk. We genieten met volle teugen, hebben relatief weinig last van het virus en de consequenties en we denken dat al dat verzet tegen maatregelen vooral een ‘mindset’ is. Als je je bij de situatie neerlegt is het allemaal niet zo erg je aan de voorschriften te houden. lieve groet terug!

    1. no. Sitting in a car together does not require the use of a face mask. However, if you are picking up people from the airport who just arrived and have not yet received the results of their test, it is common sense to wear it anyway. Common sense is and remains the keyword here.

    1. It is indeed Maurice. Nobody likes wearing a mask, but nobody wants to be on a respirator either, I should think. We can do without all the drama. We have been making the most of this summer and frankly, it was great with some minor inconveniences.

  10. well wrote as usual but one wonders if some people do have common sense definitely plenty here in England have none or self respect.

    1. Thank you, Pauline. One wonders about people’s common sense indeed, but it is not an England-only problem. I know about groups of Dutch youths illegally partying and then cause 60 (!) new infections in one evening. I am sure that many, especially younger people behave very selfishly and want their old lives back and simply ignore everything. Of course, we all want our old lives back, but that is not going to happen all that soon, especially not if people keep putting themselves and others at risk.

  11. Ich hoffe, Deine Erklaerungen werden von ALLEN gelesen, VERSTANDEN und umgesetzt.
    Well done, Peter

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